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Bainite

Bainite refers to an intermediate stage of iron and carbon alloys. We can describe the structure of bainite as needle like and chemically it consists of a mixture of carbides and ferrite. Bainite forms itself when during a heat treatment of a cast a certain cooling process is followed. Here one has to especially pay attention that neither martensite nor perlite form itself.

If the formation of bainite occurs in the upper temperature range and thus just below ferrite formation, we refer to it as upper bainite. In adherence to this bainite which forms itself in the lower temperature range and about martensite formation, is called lower bainite.

Both lower and upper bainite have different characteristics and they mostly influence the grade of toughness of steel. Upper bainite shows higher impact energy values. Also the transition temperature is higher. Lower bainite has lower values on the high-level, but also lower transition temperatures. Therefore it is mostly suitable for use at lower ambient temperatures.

Wiki – Casting technique

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